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饮食养生:胆和胆囊是一个器官吗

”胆在右胁之内,附于肝之短叶间,其形若悬瓠,呈囊状,现代称之为“胆囊”。

”Gallbladder in the right flank, attached to the liver between the short leaves, its shape like a hanging gourd, cystic, known as the modern "gallbladder.".

胆内贮藏胆汁,是一种清净、味苦而呈黄绿色的“精汁”,亦称“清汁”,故《灵枢·本输》称胆为“中精之府”,《千金要方》称胆为“中清之府”,《难经·三十五难》称之为“清净之府”。

Bile stored in bile is a kind of pure, bitter and yellow green "essence juice", also known as "clear juice". Therefore, in Lingshu Benshu, it is called "the house of essence in essence", in Qianjin Yaofang, in Nanjing 35nan, it is called "Qingzhi".

为了方便,小编在下文统一称为胆囊。

In order to facilitate, small series in the following unified known as gallbladder.

2、胆囊的位置胆囊位于右上腹,肝脏的下缘,附着在肝脏的胆囊窝里,借助胆囊管与胆总管相通。

2. The location of the gallbladder is located in the right upper abdomen, the lower edge of the liver, attached to the gallbladder fossa of the liver, and communicated with the common bile duct through the cystic duct.

胆囊管长约2~4厘米,直径约0.3厘米,其内有螺旋式粘膜皱襞,有调节胆汁出入作用。

The cystic duct is about 2-4 cm long and 0.3 cm in diameter. There are spiral mucosal folds in the cystic duct, which can regulate the entry and exit of bile.

胆囊粘膜层中,除了一般的细胞外,尚有属于神经内分泌系统分泌肽类激素(apud系统)的内分泌细胞,其生理学上的意义尚未确定。

In addition to the general cells, there are endocrine cells in the mucous membrane of gallbladder that secrete peptide hormones (APUD system) in the neuroendocrine system.

这些特点有助于规律性地控制胆汁进入与排出。

These characteristics contribute to the regular control of bile entry and excretion.

2、浓缩胆汁金黄色碱性肝胆汁中的大部分水和电解质,由胆囊黏膜吸收返回到血液,留下胆汁中有效成分储存在胆囊内,变成棕黄色或墨绿色呈弱酸性的胆囊胆汁。

2. Most of the water and electrolytes in the concentrated bile golden yellow basic liver and gallbladder juice are absorbed by the gallbladder mucosa and returned to the blood, leaving the effective components in the bile stored in the gallbladder, turning into brown yellow or dark green weak acid gallbladder bile.

4、排空进食3~5min后,食物经十二指肠,刺激十二指肠黏膜,产生一种激素叫缩胆囊素,使胆囊收缩,将胆囊内胆汁立即排入十二指肠,以助脂肪的消化和吸收,在排出胆汁同时,也将胆道内的细菌与胆汁一起排出体外。

4. Three to five minutes after emptying and eating, food passes through the duodenum and stimulates the duodenal mucosa to produce a hormone called cholecystokinin, which causes the gallbladder to contract. The bile in the gallbladder is immediately discharged into the duodenum to help digest and absorb fat. At the same time, the bacteria in the bile duct are also discharged from the body together with the bile.

如结石位于胆总管,叫做胆总管石病。

If the stone is located in the common bile duct, it is called choledocholithiasis.

胆汁含有大量胆固醇,通常状态下以液体形式存在,当胆汁中胆固醇过饱和时,胆固醇成为不溶性的,由胆汁中析出沉淀成石。

Bile contains a large amount of cholesterol, which usually exists in the form of liquid. When the cholesterol in the bile is supersaturated, the cholesterol becomes insoluble and precipitates into stone from the bile.

胆管内结石形成系由于胆汁流速变慢、淤滞而致,如胆管有狭窄或胆囊切除术后。

The formation of stones in the bile duct is caused by the slowing down and stagnation of bile flow, such as stricture of bile duct or after cholecystectomy.

2、急性胆囊炎急性胆囊炎是胆囊壁的炎症,通常由胆囊颈管结石引起,同时引起突然发作的剧烈的疼痛。

2. Acute cholecystitis acute cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder wall, usually caused by gallstones in the neck of the gallbladder, and causes sudden onset of severe pain.

一般而言,病情非常严重,能导致胆囊坏死或穿孔。

Generally speaking, the condition is very serious and can lead to necrosis or perforation of the gallbladder.

需立即行外科手术切除胆囊。

The cholecystectomy should be performed immediately.

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